Now that Trump's so-called "tax reform" has passed, I wanted to discuss the myths that have been spread in order to justify what is in reality an unproductive tax cut for corporations and the wealthiest Americans.
For several years now the claim has been made that US corporations pay the highest tax rate in the world. Although many who have made this claim are simply ignorant puppets who repeat what they have been told, others know they are intentionally deceiving the public. I'll refer to this latter group as corporate shills.
Shills hold a prominent position in America's criminal media machine, either as reporters or as guests (often referred to as "experts" by the media). Quite simply these shills serve as PR agents for America's corporate fascist economic system. Sadly, many Americans actually believe these shills are making factual statements and speaking the truth. As a result, most have accepted their countless deceptive and inaccurate claims without bothering to verify them.
Every time these shills find an opportunity to beef up the corporate state in the name of "free market capitalism" they spread more lies in order to sufficiently brainwash the working class into "digging their own graves" so to speak, by getting them to support the very policies that bolster corporate interests at the expense of their own living standards.
The same basic strategy has been utilized in order to convince most Americans the notion that "universal healthcare is a terrible idea" because it would "reduce the quality of medical care"...and that the "war on terrorism is real and necessary in order to "preserve and protect our way of life."
The list of ridiculous narratives disseminated by these shills is quite lengthy as you can imagine. Regardless which of the countless lies we are talking about, they all have one thing in common. They are always linked to scare tactics because Washington uses fear and panic in order to justify its actions. Incidentally, I find it ironic that the various charlatans who pitch fear and doom as a way to lure suckers into precious metals and penny stock scams also trash the government. But both use the same tactics to fool people.
At the end of the day, not even the most sophisticated tactics will be effective unless the shills have enough suckers who will believe their propaganda. Unfortunately, most Americans are easily duped when presented with superficial data due to their inability to think clearly.
But of course this was not always the case. Decades ago before the media evolved into the complex and powerful control mechanism of today, people were much more critical. You can even get a sense for this by watching an old episode of the Phil Donahue Show whereby the audience questions the fear-mongering claims of Doug "con man" Casey in 1980.
This is the video where Doug Casey gets in front of millions of people on national television in 1980 and warns about America's permanant and devastating economic collapse. In response to this collapse, he tells viewers about his book which recommends everyone to load up on gold and knives. Of course, because we already know Doug Casey is a contrarian indicator, at the time of the interview the US economy had already bottomed, gold would collapse thereafter and a few years later the stock market would enter the greatest bull run in history to date. And of course this televised "interview" was really a paid PR event. Publishers and authors pay for these book promos even today. The fact that the media does not disclose this gives you a sense of how much you should trust the media. I wonder how many people lost their life savings listening to this charlatan. One thing is for sure. This mass exposure landed Casey a huge pay day when the suckers he scared wth his nonsense bought his completely useless book.
Why didn't Casey post this video on his website or his You Tube channel? After all, Jeff Berwick's posted it on his channel (he has several channels). Given that Berwick states that Casey is his mentor and the two have been involved in business dealings, wouldn't it make sense for Casey to post his own video on his own channel as well?
My guess is that Casey did not add this video to his own channel because even he realizes that the claims he made in this video proves he's a joke and a broken clock con man. In contrast, Berwick actually thinks posting the video lends credibility to Casey. This demonstrates just how stupid Berwick is. And the man IS very stupid.
If you visit this video link on You Tube, please feel free to let the sheep know that Berwick and Casey are career con men in the comment section.
As I have previously discussed, many people have lost the ability to think clearly due to the takeover of their mind by various forms of media brainwashing as well as mind control tactics via the education system, the social system (i.e. implicit rules of thought and behavior as shaped by authority figures) and pressure in the workplace (such as political correctness and the need to be a good "corporate citizen" in order to advance their career). Thus, when they see a chart that seems to illustrate that US corporations pay the highest tax rate in the world, they believe it without digging deeper.
It is by no coincidence that George Mason University has been cited in the above chart, as this third-rate university's Mercatus Center is largely funded by the Koch brothers and other so-called "libertarian" charlatans who have fooled many working class Americans to support corporate fascism, outsourcing and lower corporate taxes at the expense of American jobs, lower wages and higher individual tax rates.
For instance, most Americans don't bother to ask whether this tax rate is the final mean tax rate once all deductions and tax credits have been applied, or to what extent US corporations provide tax revenues relative to economic growth, nor do they bother to ask to what extent are corporations contributing tax revenues to the government compared to individual tax payers. These important considerations along with supporting data are shown later.
Various corporate shills plastered throughout the media have claimed that Trump's "tax reform" will lead to more US jobs and stronger economic growth.
They claim that the supposedly "high" US corporate tax rate is partly responsible for America's self-destructive outsourcing trend (they don't specifically use words like "outsourcing" because they do not want to remind Americans about this form of economic treason). Thus, they claim that lowering the corporate tax rate would enable US corporations to invest more into US operations and therefore create "more US-based jobs."
Note that both political parties have embraced this nonsense. And while republicans have stood by these claims to a larger degree than democrats you should realize this is merely a smoke screen to make less intelligent voters think the two parties are fundamentally different. It's important to point this out in order to remind you that when it comes to issues that matter most to Americans (jobs, medical care and military spending) both parties agree. And they always side with corporations and the wealthy instead of the masses.
As you shall soon see, the US corporate tax rate is not nearly as high as reported. And by some measures it has actually been in decline for many decades.
Moreover, this so-called "high" corporate tax rate has had nothing to do with corporate America's destructive outsourcing trend which has resulted in the loss of millions of good jobs. This long period of outsourcing has ultimately helped reduce US living standards.
Another claim made by corporate shills is that the so-called "high" corporate tax rate has been the main impetus for the excessive number of corporate inversions. This trend has been particularly robust in the post-crisis period. The general explanation made by the shills which has (supposedly) accounted for the high rate of inversions is as follows.
Over the past few years, firms sought to relocate their corporate headquarters to nations with lower corporate tax rates. Thus, if the corporate tax rate in the US was reduced, US corporations would become more competitive with corporations located elsewhere, and would therefore have no need to relocate to other nations. This would prevent jobs from being sent overseas.
Before I debunk the inaccurate statements made in the preceding argument, there are many directions I could take from here. For instance, I could argue that US corporations have a certain implied obligation to the US economy and US workers for reasons that even extend beyond the various tax subsidies they receive each year. But for simplicity purposes I'm going to stick with the main topic. That is, the myth that US corporate taxes are the highest in the world, and thus cutting these taxes will serve to create more US jobs. I'll address the reality of the US corporate tax rate later. For now, let's get back to the notion of inversions.
Once we examine the inversion story more closely we see that the claims made by the corporate shills do not even stand up to the lowest hurdle of common sense. The easiest inversion myth to debunk is that related to outsourcing. When corporations shift headquarters to another nation, in most cases it merely represents a legal designation for tax purposes. General plant facilities, manufacturing operations and jobs are almost never relocated to the new headquarters. If that were the case, Bermuda's economy would be one of the best and strongest in the world.
The next argument that is easily debunked is that the high rate of corporate inversions has been due to America's high corporate tax rates. Remember that inversions have only recently soared. Prior to the financial crisis inversions were not at all common for US corporations. It is also important to note that the US corporate tax rate has remained unchanged for many, many years. Therefore, the recent surge in corporate inversions cannot be explained by America's alleged "high" corporate tax rate.
I could argue that once you account for various tax credits and other subsidies that have been gradually added into the tax code, the US corporate tax rate has actually been reduced over the past three decades.
And when measured as a percentage of the economy, the corporate tax rate has definitively been in decline for several decades as I first revealed in America's Financial Apocalypse.
But for the purpose of simplicity let's assume the US corporate tax rate has been unchanged for several years (even though it has decreased). Because the tax rate has not increased for quite some time, one cannot reasonably conclude that America's "high" corporate tax rate has led to the recent inversion trend.
At best, one might claim that inversions have increased as a way to cut costs. But this is more of a reflection of the economic environment rather than the corporate tax rate. Remember that the rate of inversions began to take off only after the financial crisis. And because the economy has not been running at full potential since the crisis this has put more pressure on corporate earnings (although much of the pressure has been mitigated by record-low interest rates which have actually hurt individual savers and retirement plans that are focused on generating income).
Regardless, because America's version of capitalism puts investors first at all costs, management will always seek new ways to reduce operating expenses in order to boost profits. That means inversions will ultimately enter the picture during a challenging economic period. Thus, the only way to prevent inversions would be to make US corporate tax rates the lowest in the world. And if you think that's a good idea, you do not realize how low the rates already are for US corporations. You also probably fail to realize that any tax cuts to corporations will lead to higher taxes on individuals, or else it will add to the nation's already very high debt.
Remember, whenever someone does not pay taxes, someone else has to. You cannot cut taxes and hope the revenues lost by the tax cut will be generated by magic. Someone else must ultimately provide these tax revenues. Otherwise, you will create an additional debt burden which will ultimately be stuck with individual tax payers.
So why might a US corporation seek to relocate to another nation? There's quite a few possible reasons. But most of these reasons are in fact based on taxes. However, the problem is more with the details from within the tax code than the corporate tax rate. You see, inversion activity has been used on a case-by-case basis in order to take advantage of various tax credits and other allowances that are not present in the US or that do not benefit the particular US-based corporation in question by as much as the corporation might receive if it relocated to another nation. Thus, for one to conclude that inversions are the result of America's alleged "highest corporate tax rate in the world" would be 100% inaccurate and intellectually irresponsible even if US corporations were paying the highest tax rates (and they aren't). The argument breaks down further once you realize that the tax rate for US corporations is much lower than the 35% rate that's often quoted.
Let me reemphasize the main reason for corporate inversions. Most US corporations that have relocated overseas were not benefiting as much from the various tax credits, deductions and other stipulations embedded within the US tax code, so they relocated their headquarters to a nation where the tax code led to a lower tax rate. But even if the US corporate tax rate were lower, these same corporations might still relocate to another nation because the stated tax rate by itself does not determine the actual rate of taxes paid by each corporation. The gross or initial tax rate is only a starting point. The final rate is determined once all tax credits, deductions and special allowances have been factored in. More on this later.
Another argument raised in support for lower corporate taxes focuses on the cash repatriation narrative. Due to America's ridiculously self-destructive trade policies, most large US firms have shifted a substantial portion of their operations overseas. Over the years these foreign subsidiaries have accumulated a huge stock pile of cash, with estimates as high as $3 trillion. But because of America's "high" corporate tax rate, the parent companies have chosen to keep this cash overseas rather that to pay US taxes.
Note that if you or I did the same thing the IRS would send us to prison for tax evasion since all US citizens must pay US taxes on all income regardless where it was earned.
Thus, corporate shills claim that US corporations with foreign operations would repatriate huge pools of cash if US corporate taxes were cut. They have even proposed a "tax holiday" in which no taxes would be levied in exchange for repatriation of cash held overseas. This is an absolutely ridiculous idea.
They claim that this expected "flood of cash" into the US would result in a greater number of US-based jobs as companies reinvested this cash back into their US operations. Much of this narrative is simply untrue, while the remainder is speculative at best and not likely to materialize based on historical precedent. This, like other false narratives from the corporate shills has been manufactured in order to provide the proper level of public support needed to slash corporate tax rates even further all while avoiding mention of the largest contributor to outsourcing, i.e. the system of unfair trade rules created by corporate America and passed by congress over the past three decades, otherwise known as "free trade."
We already saw how this story played out several years ago. In America's Financial Apocalypse (2006) I pointed out that Bush's Jobs Creation Act (passed in 2003) did not fulfill its official intended purpose. This bill was passed with the assumption that US corporations faced with high tax rates chose to keep the profits overseas instead of repatriation in order to avoid paying the "excessively high" US corporate tax rate.
According to this argument, the unwillingness of many US corporations to repatriate funds back into the US was responsible for a reduction in reinvestment into US-based operations and thus fewer US-based jobs were being created. Therefore, the bill provided US corporations with a tax holiday in order to encourage repatriation of profits into the US. In short, it enabled US corporations to pay no taxes on profits earned from offshore locations.
The only problem was that corporations didn't use the money saved from these tax cut to create US-based jobs. Instead, management returned this money to shareholders in the form of cash dividends and share buybacks. That might be good for you or I as investors, but it's bad for workers.
At the end of the day if you aren't concerned about your fellow countrymen your priorities have become mixed up. See here.
Reference: Taken from America's Financial Apocalypse, 2006.
See here for one report discussing how Bush's Jobs Creation Act played out.
Before I continue, I think some additional background would be helpful in order to expand one's perspective on this topic. Right around the year 2011, as the US continued to face weak job growth due to the lasting effects of the global financial crisis, politicians began refocusing once again on ways to cut taxes for US corporations. They claimed that the tepid job growth was due to the fact that US corporations held huge sums of money overseas and had no plans to repatriate their cash stock piles because they would be subjected to the "highest corporate tax rate in the world." This lie was similar to others manufactured by the shills who also claimed that the low employment rate was the result of a labor force that lacked adequate skills. Of course neither of these claims was true. Once again, corporate shills never hesitate to blame the US labor force for decades of dwindling opportunity as a result of America's so-called free trade policies.
Furthermore, the fact is that US corporations generally pay low tax rates depending on the type of corporation, the size, complexity, geographic location, profitability and other factors. I first discussed this fact in 2006 in America's Financial Apocalypse. I also detailed America's destructive trade policies as the number one factor leading to its gradual economic decline.
Reference: Taken from America's Financial Apocalypse, 2006.
Reference: Taken from America's Financial Apocalypse, 2006.
Reference: Taken from America's Financial Apocalypse, 2006.
Reference: Taken from America's Financial Apocalypse, 2006.
My focus on America's destructive trade policies was (I believe) one of the main reasons why the book was barred from publication. I actually had to create my own publishing company in order to get the book published (this was at a time prior to the establishment of Amazon's self-publishing portal).
Incidentally, I believe America's Financial Apocalypse has been one of the most valuable investment-related books written in decades in terms of accuracy, insight and foresight. Sure, I am a bit biased in this matter but I have not found another book that has been as valuable (other than perhaps the Wall Street Investment Bible).
Today, America's Financial Apocalypse remains as perhaps the only book on economics and investments that has been banned by the US media. The reason? The crime syndicate does not want Americans to know the full truth about how the nation's economy, corporations, healthcare, banking system and government really work, for if Americans truly understood the reality it might lead to some big problems for Washington, Wall Street and the healthcare industry. Instead, the media mafia promotes shills, liars, idiots and con artists who gain the attention of the masses by sprinkling bits and pieces of the truth onto their packs of lies and disinformation, all while pretending to be on the side of the masses. If you have been following me for a few years, by now you should know who most of these people are.
As far as understanding the full truth regarding corporate taxes, most Americans have been fooled by the deceptive statements constantly repeated by an army of shills who are constantly positioned as "experts" in the media. That is, the myth that "US corporations have the highest tax rate in the world."
Remember the media uses the flooding approach in order to dupe the masses. Flooding is a very common means of manipulation used by the media on a daily basis. By flooding people with the same statements over and over you can usually get them to believe even the most ridiculous things. All you really have to do is recruit a large number of shills which keep repeating the same lines.
For example, do you remember the claims made by Washington and the media back in 2002 and many years thereafter that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction? How many people on TV did you hear make the claim that Iraq had WMDs?
A more recent example can be appreciated by considering how the gold-pumping syndicate convinced millions of people that the "US dollar would go to 0, the US would face hyperinflation, all fiat currencies would fail, gold would soar to $20,000," and so on. Many people fell for this nonsense because they figured it must be true since so many people kept saying it. The propaganda spread by the gold-pumping crime syndicate was the flooding approach at its best.
In order to get a grip on reality while casting out the myths, one must first understand that the official corporate tax rate is the gross tax rate. This rate is only a starting point. In most cases the final corporate tax rate is significantly lower than the official or gross tax rate. The gross or starting tax rate is often referred to as the statutory rate.
In contrast, the final tax rate once all deductions, tax credits and special allowances have been applied is known as the effective tax rate. This is the actual rate of taxation for each corporation.
The situation is similar for individual taxes. Anyone who has a basic understanding of income taxes should be able to appreciate this. If you itemize your tax deductions when filing your annual income tax returns you understand this concept. I'm not going to go into the details but in general, your gross income is reduced to an adjusted gross income based on numerous tax deductions. Next, you factor in tax credits and other adjustments in order to determine your final tax rate.
As you might envision, while a comparison of the statutory corporate tax rates around the world is quite simple to present, it's irrelevant because it does not necessarily indicate the actual tax rate paid by a given corporation.
The critical comparison to make is to examine the effective corporate tax rate in nations throughout the world. Such a comparison is quite difficult and complex to make because it requires one to have an intimate understanding of the complicated tax codes in each nation. From there, one must go through different scenarios in order to determine which types of corporations stand to benefit from the various tax credits and other key features within the tax code of each nation. This would be a very time consuming and labor intensive exercise that would require (at minimum) dozens of highly trained professionals working full time.
And due to the annual changes to tax codes in each nation, the only feasible way to understand and present this information accurately would be to create an organization specifically focused on this monumental task. Such an organization would most likely also require the assistance of various business and accounting professors from universities throughout the world.
But as you might have guessed, such an organization does not exist. After all, this hypothetical organization would require large sums of money for its annual operating budget. And who do you suppose would fund it? Corporate America? Washington?
Understandably, neither corporate America nor Washington would have an incentive to fund an organization that is focused on determining the full truth about global taxation. The incentive is to reduce taxes for corporations because corporations and their wealthy shareholders buy off all politicians. This is how democracy and capitalism operate.
It's much easier and more effective to use the media to brainwash people into thinking precisely what you want them to think. This represents the ultimate form of control because the people believe they are in touch with reality. The fact is that the media has seized control over their minds such that they have actually helped build and strengthen the very system that has enslaved them. And they don't even realize it because they have willfully gone along with this system thinking that they have done the right thing.
The US Treasury Department does however work with several federal government agencies in addition to global establishment arms such as the OECD in order to compile this data. I believe the US data presented in the chart below is a bit inflated. But still, as you can see the average effective tax rate for US corporations (at 13.4%) is still much lower than the 35% that's quoted by the corporate shills.
So why isn't this data discussed by the media when the topic of corporate taxes comes up?
After all, the effective tax rate is the actual rate paid by US corporations. Isn't this the only rate that matters?
As a result of tax credits, deductions and other allowances embedded within the US corporate tax code, some US corporations pay close to no taxes. This has been well-documented. This highlights the importance of focusing on the effective tax rate rather than the statutory rate.
It's also important to consider that most US corporations that receive big tax breaks have also sent a massive number of jobs overseas. That sounds like a great way to increase the inequality gap.
For example, over the past few years General Electric has paid almost no corporate taxes in the US. GE was once a great industrial corporation fueled by American workers. Today, it is one of many US corporations producing cheap trash from China. Incidentally, GE does more to fuel China's economy than America's.
When examining the business and economic impact of corporate tax rates, a comparison of the various rates throughout the globe is important to consider. But it's also very important to note what percentage of corporate taxes comprises the total tax revenues of the government. Moreover, it's also very important to compare the source of tax revenues versus economic growth (as reflected by GDP growth).
Over the past several decades, US corporate taxes as a share of GDP have actually declined significantly. In contrast, payroll taxes have risen appreciably. Think about that. During a period when corporate profits have been at record highs, corporate taxes have been near record lows. I first pointed this out in America's Financial Apocalypse (2006).
Reference: Taken from America's Financial Apocalypse, 2006.
Below I have posted more recent charts which illustrate these data.
As a reminder, payroll taxes fund critical programs like Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid and other social assistance programs. These programs comprise what's known as the Mandatory Spending component of the annual federal budget. These programs are considered Mandatory because taxpayers have specifically been taxed for the purpose of funding them. Thus, Mandatory programs must be funded by the federal government. Otherwise, they would lose all justification for collecting payroll taxes.
Because more than one-half of the tax revenues from payroll taxes come from individual tax payers (payroll taxes are shared by workers and employers equally but self-employed pay the full amount so this means individuals account for more than half of all payroll tax revenues) the gradual increase in payroll taxes in the absence of meaningful reductions in individual tax rates has placed a sizable burden on working and middle-class taxpayers.
In contrast, increases in payroll taxes paid by corporations have been offset by the gradual reduction in corporate taxes over the past several decades (refer to the chart below).
If all of this weren't sufficient to convince you that US corporations don't need a tax cut, consider that individual taxpayers account for more than five times the dollar amount of federal tax revenues each year.
Finally, consider that US corporate profits have been making new record-highs for several years while US median wage growth has been relatively stagnant for well over a decade. Meanwhile, living standards for the average American worker continue to decline.
As discussed in America's Financial Apocalypse, the decline in US living standards arguably began in the 1980s, but the decline has been more rapid and noticeable since NAFTA was passed in the early 1990s as a result of the continuous expansion of so-called "free trade" since then.
What have US corporations done with these record-high profits? They have boosted shareholder returns in the form of cash dividends and share repurchases.
Accordingly, what sane, honest and intelligent person would conclude that an additional boost to profits at the expense of the working class (i.e. a tax cut for corporations which would have to be paid for by individual tax payers) would lead to the creation of US-based jobs?
So what do you suppose corporations are going to do with this huge amount of cash they're going to come into as a result of Trump's "tax reform." It should be obvious that this cash will largely go to shareholders in the form of dividends (cash dividends and share repurchases).
So the question is, who really needs a cut in taxes? Corporations which have sent millions of jobs overseas, boosted profits to record highs despite facing the world's "highest" tax rate? Wealthy investors who have profited from this economic treason? Or working and middle-class Americans who have been devastated by so-called free trade?
Today, most Americans continue to believe that US corporations needed the ridiculous tax cut that was recently passed because the media's talking heads focus on the statutory tax rate without ever discussing the specifics of the effective rate. Therefore, they don't mention what corporates end up paying in taxes.
And rather than pointing out that payroll taxes have soared over the past decades, these same corporate shills continue to feed their sheep audience with pleas for reductions in Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid in order to reduce the enormous national debt, all while continuing to spend record amounts for insane, inhumane and unnecessary wars.
These same establishment shills are constantly creating propaganda that has been responsible for feeding America's wasteful and inhumane war machine. Remember, there are no taxes that are by law specifically set aside to fund the Department of Defense. That's why the Department of Defense is a Discretionary Spending Item. But there are specific tax dollars that by law must fund Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid. That is why they are referred to as Mandatory Spending Items. They are Mandatory Items because payroll taxes are legally linked to fund these programs. Yet, the Department of Defense consumes more tax dollars than Social Security. Perhaps by now you are beginning to get a sense as to why the US media is constantly creating propaganda needed to maintain America's fear-based society.
If that were not ludicrous enough, most Americans actually believe corporations will use the money saved from these overly generous tax cuts to create US-based jobs. This is complete nonsense. All honest individuals who understand business and investment dynamics will agree. The only problem is finding honest AND competent individuals in the media.
If in fact the real objective of a corporate tax cut is to create US jobs, why not specifically require by law a set number of jobs to be created by each corporation based on its estimated tax savings?
There are many ways this could be accomplished. First, economists and analysts could consider the business profile of each firm and devise ideal numbers for job creation. Each firm would receive tax credits according to how close it met these job creation goals. But this all assumes that US corporations even need a tax cut and I argue that they actually do not.
By now you should be able to predict the response to this practical idea from the media shills. They would claim that an "attack has been made on America's system of free market capitalism." The fact is that this system has been rigged to benefit the wealthy at the expense of the working and middle class.
As you can imagine, the US media works with its crime bosses (corporate executives, ultra-wealthy crooks and crooked politicians) to ensure tax dollars from individuals and are spent on corporate interests, all while working with corporate America to send jobs overseas in the name of "free market capitalism" via "free trade" and "in the name of higher profits." The media's prime role in this scam goes well beyond intellectual dishonesty. It's fraud. The media is facilitating the economic treason being executed by Washington and corporate America. And most Americans have gone along with the scam due to sheer ignorance.
Also see the Tax Foundation for a historical breakdown of yearly tax revenues by source since 1934.
Please refer to the attachment below which shows that once again why I have been banned by ALL media (so-called "mainstream" and "alternative"). I continue to provide the complete, accurate and unbiased truth. And after many years of investigation, to my knowledge I am the only professional who is delivering the complete truth without bias or agendas of any kind.
Remember, all ad-based content is manufactured specifically for the purpose of creating deception and disinformation because those who shell out the ad dollars expect a good return on investment. Ad-based content is never credible. It's controlled media comprised of slanted views and distorted facts.
And if you think you have found someone else you can trust for insight, you might be cherry-picking because when you ask these sources about critical topics, such as globalization, free trade, immigration, Affirmative Action, climate change, etc., at best you're ultimately going to get a watered down version of the truth. If you aren't getting the full truth you are being lied to.
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